What is a dream for
One theory is that we dream to release the deep, secret desires. We do not express these desires in real life because of the rules of polite society. Another theory is that dreams allow us to solve problems that we can't solve in real life. We go to sleep with a problem and wake up with the solution. This may be a way to use our dreams rather than a purpose of dreaming. If you believe that your dreams are important then analysing them may help you to focus on the problem and help you to find the solution.The modern image is that dreams are the brain's way of cleaning up the computer’s hard disk. Dreams organize the events of the day into folders and delete what is not needed. But we all know that very little of what we dream is concerned with what happened to us that day.
Everyone knows that taxation is necessary in a modern state: Without it, it would not be possible to pay the soldiers and policemen who protect us；nor the workers in government offices who look after our health, our food, our water, and all the other things that we cannot do for ourselves；nor the ministers and members of parliament(国会) who govern the country for us. By means of taxation, we pay for things that we need just as much as we need somewhere to live and something to eat.
But everyone knows that taxation is necessary, different people have different ideas about how taxation should be arranged. Should each person have to pay a certain amount of money to the government each year? Or should there be tax on things that people buy and sell? If the first kind of taxation is used, should everyone pay the same tax, whether he is rich or poor? If the second kind of tax is preferred, should everything be taxed equally?
In most countries, a direct tax on persons, which is called income tax, exists. It is arranged in such a way that the poorest people pay nothing, and the percentage of tax grows greater as the taxpayer’s income grows. In England, for example, the tax on the richest people goes up as high as ninety-five percent!
But countries with direct taxation nearly always have indirect taxation too. Many things imported into the country have to pay taxes or “duties”. Of course, it is the men and women who buy these imported things in the shops who really have to pay the duties, in the form of higher prices. In some countries, too, there is a tax on things sold in the shops. If the most necessary things are taxed, a lot of money is collected, but the poor people suffer most. If unnecessary things like jewels and fur coats are taxed, less money is got but the tax is fairer, as the rich pay it.
Probably this last kind of indirect tax, together with a direct tax on incomes which is low for the poor and high for the rich, is the best arrangement.
51. Facing the board of directors, he didn’t deny __________ breaking the agreement.
A. him B. it C. his D. its
52. Xinchun returned from aboard a different man. The italicized part functions as a (n) _______.
A. appositive (同位语) B. object C. adverbial D. complement.
53. Which of the following is a compound word (复合词)?
A. Nonsmoker B. Deadline C. Meanness D. Misfit
54. Which of the following sentences contains subjunctive mood?
A. Lucy insisted that her son get home before 5 o'clock?
B. She used to drive to work, but now she takes the city metro.
C. Walk straight ahead, and don't turn till the second traffic lights.
D. Paul will cancel his flight if he cannot get his visa by Friday.
55. The following determiners(限定词) can be used with both plural and uncountable nouns EXCEPT
A. more B. enough C. many D. such
56. Which of the italicized parts indicates CONTRAST?
A. She opened the door and quietly went in.
B. Victoria likes music and Sam is fond of sports.
C. Think it over again and you'll get an answer.
D. He is somewhat arrogant, and I don't like this.
57. Which of the following CANNOT be used as a nominal substitute(名词替代词)?
A. Much B. Neither C. One D. Quarter
58. All the following sentences definitely indicate future time EXCEPT
A. Mother is to have tea with Aunt Betty at four.
B. The President is coming to the UN next week,
C. The school pupils will be home by now.
D. He is going to email me the necessary information.
59. Which of the following sentences is grammatically INCORRECT?
A. Politics are the art or science of government.
B. Ten miles seems like a long walk to me.
C. Mumps is a kind of infectious disease.
D. All the furniture has arrived undamaged.
60. Which of in the following phrases indicates a subject-predicate relationship?
A. The arrival of the tourists B. The law of Newton
C. The occupation of the island D. The plays of Oscar Wilde
61. Which of the following italicized parts serves as an appositive?
A. He is not the man to draw back. B. Tony hit back the urge to tell a lie.
C. Larry has a large family to support. D. There is really nothing to fear.
62. Which of the following is NOT an imperative sentence?
A. Let me drive you home, shall I? B. You will mind your own business.
C. Come and have dinner with us. D. I wish you could stay behind.
63. If it _______ tomorrow, the match would be put off.
A. were to rain B. was to rain C. was raining D. had rained
64. Which of the following sentences expresses a fact?
A. Mary and her son must be home by now. B. Careless reading must give poor results.
C. It’s getting late, and I must leave now. D. He must be working late at the office.
65. The following are all dynamic verbs(动态动词) EXCEPT
A. remain B. turn C. write D. knock
51. 解析：本题考查动名词的逻辑主语。动名词可以有自己的逻辑（意义）主语，一般可以用名词所有格Tom’s，代词宾格如him（口语），书面语情况下一般用物主代词his，their。本题选C，但我还是要吐槽，因为根本就不需要多此一举添加his, he didn't deny breaking the agreement完全正确，比原题要精简地道许多，从写作角度来看，his根本是多余的，当然纯粹考察语法的话选C。
52. 解析：此题恐怕是最受争议的题目了，有人认为选A，有人认为选D。根据English Grammar: A University Course一书，“The Subject Complement (主语补足语) is the obligatory constituent which follows a copular verb(系动词) and which cannot be made subject in a passive clause: 比如Who’s there? It’s me/It’s I. She became a tennis champion at a very early age. Feel free to ask questions!” 一般语法书也是这么说的，有的书上把这种情况下接的名词叫做predicate noun/nominative,接的形容词叫做predicate adjective。该书接着说“As well as be and seem, a wide range of verbs can be used to link the subject to its Complement; these add meanings of transition (become, get, go, grow, turn) and of perception (sound, smell, look) among others,” 比如I know it sounds stupid. The situation becomes even worse. 这些一般语法书也会提到，但是题目里的都不是这种现象，很多语法书对主语补语的介绍也就到此为止。好在这本书多介绍了一点，但情况很微妙。此书又说 More problematic is the constituent following other verbs that could be used intransitively with the same meaning, as in:
Saint Ethelbert was born a Saxon princess. (she was born)
He returned a broken man. (he returned)
He died young. (he died)
We shall consider such constituents as Complements on the strength of the possible paraphrase containing be (When he returned he was a broken man; When he died he was young).
53. 解析：首先要知道什么是复合词。A compound is a word that consists of more than one free morpheme。所谓morpheme词素是最小的音义结合体，其最大的特点是不能再被分割为更小的音义结合体。而free morpheme是指能独立存在使用的词素，bound morpheme则是必须依附于其他单位的词素，比如前缀后缀属于bound morpheme，如pre-，-ment，在单词shipment里，ship就是free morpheme，ment则是bound。因此四个选项里只有deadline是由两个free morpheme构成（dead+line），其他三个都有Bound morpheme比如non,ness,mis-等。
54. 解析: subjunctive mood是指虚拟语气，四个选项里只有A的insist属于虚拟语气用法，其中that从句里省略了should。
55. 解析：限定词的用法是近几年专四的热门考点，诸如some，many，both，all，each等用法究竟如何还是希望大家多翻阅语法书和词典。这道题看似有点难度，也许你从来不知道哪个限定词可以接名词复数和不可数名词，但好在备选项里每个单词你都可以去接名词试试就知道了，比如more money,more trees; enough money, enough trees; many money?, many trees; such big trees, such behavior.所以选C。
57. 解析：估计不少学生看到名词替代词这个术语，一开始都吓着了，因为压根没听说过，不过对做这道题目倒无大碍，所谓名词替代词顾名思义就是指能代替名词或名词短语，避免重复的词，英语里one, ones,(the)same等都是常见的。比如There are good films as well as bad ones.除此以外还有the kind, the sort，比如Slang disappears quickly, especially the juvenile sort.还有一些不定代词等比如all, both, some, any enough, several, none, many, much, (a) few, (a) little, the other, others, another, either, neither等，比如Can you get me some nails? I need some. I don’t want any more food. I’ve had enough. 本题选D, quarter不是名词替代词。
58. 解析：这道题目有点意思，既考查时态，又考查will的用法，A/B/D都是将来时的各种表达，唯独C的will，看似是将来时标志，其实不然，因为和by now矛盾，这里will的用法是指you think something is true，表说话人自己的看法，比如That will be Tim coming home now; Ask anyone and they will tell you the same thing. 本题选C。
59. 解析：本题考查主谓一致（agreement/concord）。ten miles看作整体单数，mumps腮腺炎这个单词就是以s结尾的，不可数名词；furniture在英语里是不可数名词；A里的politics并不是指政治，而是指政治学(political science)，是不可数名词，但这个用法主要是英式英语。此外，politics表示政治可以看作不可数名词，也可以看作复数，比如Politics have always interested me. 本题选A。
60. 解析：章振邦的书拿到手后果然发现了他的讲解，基本就是原句。第五版的55页，名词属格和of-词组一节说：名词属格和of-词组在意义和用法上有许多相同之处，比如the trunk of an elephant=an elephant's trunk，表示主谓关系有the arrival of the prime minister;表示动宾关系 the occupation of the Island;表来源 the law of Newton。因此据此本题选A。但我要吐槽的是先不说我手上其他参考书根本没有讲到，就这种主谓关系，动宾关系的说法我就不太同意，因为所谓词组的主谓关系和动宾关系是汉语语法里的说法，英语里说主谓自然指的是句子，一个名词短语何来主谓之说？
61. 解析：又是同位语？！四个选项的用法在大部分语法书里并没有做进一步区分，都成为不定式的定语用法，修饰名词。不过章振邦的书里又出现了这个，又是原句作为选项出现，章指出不定式作为名词的后置修饰语时，不定式和名词之间的搭配关系是主谓A中的the man draw back，也可以是C和D的动宾to fear nothing, to support family；有时候也是同为关系,比如urge(冲动)的内容就是指to tell a lie撒谎，故为同位语。我不得不吐槽，章很喜欢分析任何语法单位的结构，他在教师用书的第一部分也说本书语法体系是要贯彻层次分析法。
62. 解析：花了点时间翻遍手头各类语法和用法图书，除了直接用动词打头，Do/Don't，You/其他唤名+动词, let类型外，均没有见到D的wish类型。说明：似乎只有章振邦的书上在情态动词will一节提到B的属于加强祈使句。我个人对此表示质疑。更常见的应该是You mind your own business。如果说You will mind your own business是祈使句，那么You will see him now岂不是也是祈使句？这显然说不通。其实You will mind your own business要有祈使句功能，还跟语气语调有很大关系，应该念成You WILL mind your own business! 而不是YOU will mind your own business. 出题人不严谨，死扣语法书，可见一斑。
64. 解析：目前来看又要有争议。很多人认为是B，而我之前说C，尽管C里的must是表示主观必须（C只有前半句是fact，后半句谈不上什么事实）。问题在于如何理解B的must。在English Grammar:A University Course一书里有一节谈到must的logical necessity用法问题，作者说在英式英语里有用must表示逻辑上的必定如此，尽管美国人更喜欢用have to。比如 If Jane is Pat's sister and Jill is Jane's daughter, Pat must be Jill's aunt.此时Pat must be Jill's aunt就相当于不用情态动词的陈述句Pat is Jill's aunt.如此极端的例子才能说明这是逻辑上的必然，但我实在看不出选项B里一个没有语境的句子是如何有逻辑上的必然，我个人觉得Careless reading must give poor results.和Careless reading gives poor results.还是不一样的。B句是章振邦那本书里的原句，章自己也说“用must表示必然，也是一种推测或推断，其口气最为肯定，一般用于肯定陈述句”由此来看，再如何肯定那也是一种推断，不是fact。
65. 解析：看到专四考这个题目，我只能呵呵。动态动词是指能够延续持续动作的，比如hit，run等，相反的则是stative verb静态动词，比如know.现在进行时是常见检验手段。你不能说I am knowing the answer，只能说I know the answer，因此know是静态动词。同理，题目的A选项remain也是静态动词，其他都是动态动词。
66. __________ to school life was less difficult than the pupil had expected.
A. Adhering B. Adopting C. Adjusting D. Acquainting
67. He is fed up with the same old dreary routine, and wants to quit his job. The underlined part means __________.
A. dull B. boring C. long D. hard
68. At last night’s party Larry said something that I though was beyond me. The underlined part means __________.
A. I was unable to do B. I couldn’t understand
C. I was unable to stop D. I couldn’t tolerate
69. The couple __________their old house and sold it for a vast profit.
A. did for B. did in C. did with D. did up
70. Sally contributed a lot to the project, but she never once accepted all the __________ for herself.
A. credit B. attention C. focus D. award
71. The child nodded, apparently content with his mother’s promise. The underlined part means __________.
A. as far as one has learnt B. as far as one is concerned
C. as far as one can see D. as far as one is told
72. The __________ that sport builds character is well accepted by people nowadays.
A. issue B. argument C. point D. sentence
73. Everyone in the office knows that Melinda takes infinite care over her work. The underlined part means __________.
A. limited B. unnecessary C. overdue D. much
74. The new measure will reduce the chance of serious injury in the event of an accident. The underlined part means __________.
A. if an accident happens B. if an accident can be prevented
C. before an accident D. during an accident
75. Traditionally, local midwives would __________ all the babies in the area.
A. handle B. produce C. deliver D. help
76. No food or drink is allowed on the premises. The underlined part means __________.
A. proposition B. advertisement C. building D. string
77. The court would not accept his appeal unless __________ evidence is provided.
A. conclusive B. definite C. eventual D. concluding
78. As soon as he opened the door, a __________ of cold air swept through the house.
A. flow B. movement C. rush D. blast
79. She really wanted to say something at the meeting, but eventually __________ from it.
A. prevented B. refrained C. limited D. restricted
80. The couple told the decorator that they wanted their bedroom gaily painted. The underlined part means __________.
A. brightly B. light-heartedly C. cheerfully D. lightly
66. 解析：这题没啥好说的，适应学校生活 adjust to school life，选C。
67. 解析： dreary指dull，选A。但有词典指出boring也是近义词，外教也表示AB均可。所以B也是对的，我估计出题人是选A。
68. 解析：be beyond somebody指to be too difficult for someone to understand.故选B。
69. 解析：选D。do up这里指to repair an old building or car, or to improve its appearance。此外do up还可以指fasten something，比如Do your laces up before you trip over.
70. 解析：选A。这里的credit指approval or praise that you give to someone for something they have done.常见搭配有give credit; take/claim/deserve credit。
71. 解析：首先ABCD的释义都是指apparently的意思，具体语境有具体不同的释义，在我们这个句子里，指according to the way someone looks or a situation appears, although you cannot be sure. 因此选C。换一个句子比如I wasn’t there, but apparently the thief got away.这里的apparently就指A或D。
72. 解析：选B。这里的argument指a set of reasons that show something is true or untrue, right or wrong。相当于汉语说的主张论点。很多人选C，point的确有这个意思，也可以接同位语从句，搭配上习惯是说take the/sb’s point.不过，我询问过外教，他是觉得argument更好，只是point也没什么不对。
73. 解析：infinite是finite的反义词，这里指very great/huge in amount or degree，因此选D。
74. 解析： 选A。in the event of something is used to tell people what they should do if something happens.
76. 解析：选C。以复数形式出现的premises指the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, company etc uses.
77. 解析：选A。首先appeal是指上诉。Conclusive指showing something is definitely true，比如conclusive proof/evidence/findings。旁证是circumstantial evidence.
78. 解析：个人认为选D。又见量化问题，一阵/股冷风袭来该如何用英语说。首先句子里动词用了sweep，指to move suddenly and/or with force over an area or in a particular direction.而blast指a sudden strong movement of air。但问题在于C。词典里rush其实可以指a sudden fast movement of air, 外教的回答是blast is better here and is what native speakers would prefer. 而Flow往往接的是水流电流等，而且指a smooth and steady movement.
79. 解析：refrain from sth/doing sth指to not do something you want to do，主要用于书面语。
80. 解析：先聊聊gaily这个单词的来源吧。这个单词虽然是ly结尾却是形容词，是有gay + ly 变来的。而gay在很早的时候是指人happy, merry, cheerful，或者颜色bright, attractive，这个用法现代英语已经抛弃，请大家不要乱用。所谓gaily painted/colored/decorated指having bright cheerful colors.所以选A。
SECTION A COMPOSITION
Most of us, as students, are careful with our money in daily life: we collect all kinds of coupons(优惠券); we look for group-buy deals if we eat out or travel; we don't buy clothes unless in a sale. However, some people think that all this may not make us smart consumers. What is your opinion?
Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words.
You are to write in three parts.
In the first part, state specifically what your view is.
In the second part, provide one or two reasons or your experience(s) to support your opinion.
In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
You should supply an appropriate tittle for your composition.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.
SECTION B NOTE-WRITING
Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a note of about 50—60 words based on the following situation:
Your former high-school classmate(Mathew or Grace) is coming to visit you in the dorm. But, you have got something urgent to do and thus cannot wait for him/her there. Leave a note on the door, expressing your apology and telling him/her how to find you. You must make clear where you are in the note.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness.
The advantages of being careful with money in daily life
Nowadays, there is a hot debate on whether people, including students should be careful with their money in their daily life since they try their best to save money. Some people think it is not good to do so because this may not make people smart consumers. But in my eyes, the advantages of being careful with money in daily life outweigh the disadvantages.
First, being careful with money is a virtue that can always benefit people. Being thrifty is of great help, especially when the economic status around the world is not very good and it becomes harder to earn money than before. A good habit of being careful with money will help many people go through this difficult period or any other difficult financial situation in their life. People with this awareness will think carefully before deciding to buy anything. For sudents, this awareness is also of great help since they mainly depend on their parents for financial supports. When they keep this awareness in their mind, they will definitely avoid wasting money.
Secondly, being careful with money is, in fact, a good way of practicsing how to manage one's money. In current society, it is necessary to learn somthing about finance. But theories are usually hard to learn. In contrast, most people can learn quickly by practising. Being careful with money means an efficient use of money, which, in essence, equals to part of the job of a financial planner. Being careful with money can teach people to make best